EPOCHÉ RULE

Abstract To help students navigate a complex world of the legal system this article aims at presenting an approach that requires a “sort of thinking to which we are not accustomed and to which we have not been trained – a sort of thinking very different from what is required in [standard education].”(Moore) An approach referred to as epoché provides a tool that allows getting away from the anticipatory knowledge and looking at the event from a different angle. The term epoché is used in the phenomenological sense as in the setting aside of all historical and natural assumptions and factual knowledge in order to be able to apprehend more readily the phenomena and the subject’s consciousness of them. A term Necker Cube is engaged to illustrate how a hermeneutical device is used first to give us some anticipatory knowledge and then help us see what might be there that is not anticipated by the conventional explanation or interpretation. Examples used in the article are presenting daily situations, which helps see how this approach works both on higher and mundane levels. The article is a part of a series of essays modeled after Karl Llewellyn’s book The Bramble Bush aimed at entering law students and will be of interest to researchers studying both legal systems and other subjects. Key words: epoché, hermeneutics, interpretation, Necker Cube, phenomenology.

Malcolm X: A Native Son’s Long, Invisible Shadow

Abstract Malcolm X was born in Omaha, Nebraska. It is normal for a city and a state to embrace someone of significant historical stature to promote their historical significance to the nation and the world and to generate revenue from tourism and to benefit in other ways from the association with the historical figure. In the case of Malcolm, there has been a perpetual debate over recognition. This article discusses the role of Omaha as an important crucible for the context of Malcolm’s birth, and for his parents rearing of him in the “black” liberation tradition. His legacy and the debates over it are central to contemporary discussions in the state and the city about the place of African people: present, past, and future.

“Improving Humanity Through Purposive Leadership in Higher Education”

Abstract This article reflects on “Improving Humanity” and how to implement it as the primary purpose of higher education. The article includes conversational references to items of current literature and concepts of leadership/barriers to successful leadership. Historical perceptions of purposive leadership are discussed through the metaphor of Newton’s Laws of Physics in juxtaposition of evolving technology, cultural expectations, and schools of thought over the past few decades. The article concludes with discussions of Artificial General Intelligence, Multi-Helix Models, Illocutionary Acts, Law of Returns to Scale, and Open Innovation. Keywords: purposive higher education leadership improving humanity

Growing Synergy between the Knowledge Society and Translation Studies (Case study of the Department of Modern Foreign Languages and Translation Studies of Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University)

Abstract This research investigates the synergy between the knowledge society and translation studies, inasmuch in the era of disruptive innovation, rapid technological change, machine learning and digital literacy translation is undergoing a period of ground-breaking transformation. The paper presents a case study carried out by the Department of Modern Foreign Languages & Translation Studies of Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Ukraine. The authors’ focus resolves around the factors that influence students’ performance in high-quality translation practice, based on forming a holistic-translation algorithm frame that encompassed their learning of Foreign Languages (FL). The experiment involved 52 students – Masters in International Studies, majoring in 2 European languages and Translation Studies (TS). Accordingly, to effectively implement the suggested experiment, the authors outlined and grounded the synopsis of professional training for qualified students’ language and translation competency and capacity developing. As a result, the findings of the research assume that the ability to decode cultures and bridge the worlds – translation – is one of the most highly demanded skills today. Key words: translation studies, the knowledge society, digital age, synergy, high-quality translation, Department of Modern Foreign Languages & Translation Studies, interdisciplinarity.

From trauma to resilience: reparation through artistic mediation Stolen babies families from Spain, the “bus experience”

Abstract The cases of stolen babies in Spain began at the time of Francisco Franco’s regime (1940-1975) but continued to occur until relatively recently. To be precise, 300,000 babies were stolen during and after the Coup d’Etat. Many of the families now looking for their babies suffer from Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). They began to make their cases public only recently in 2011, when they discovered that the institutions had lied to them, and that their babies had not died but had been sold/given up for adoption. After confirming the lack of studies based on the victims we decided advance in the framework of research/action. The purpose of this paper is first to contextualize the theft of babies in Spain, to examine the process of artistic mediation and creativity that took place between 2016 and 2018 and to analyze how the workshops based in artistic mediation created an impact in the process of group transformation. The “Community resilience, Bus stop” and “Drive your resilient Bus” workshops in which various techniques gave rise to a safe space, not only allowed this population to increase its members but to take its cases beyond Spain’s borders, to travel to other countries and tell their stories from within a resilient and above all creative space. Keywords: Mediation transformation – Resilience – Stolen Babies – Trauma – Resilient bus – Artistic mediation

Exposing Undergraduates To Animal Research in Psychology

Abstract: To expose students to the details of research involving animals for modeling and understanding psychological disorders, the course began by investigating published original research and concluded with an original experiment. Specifically, during the first 8 weeks of the semester students read and discussed pivotal papers covering important considerations of animal model research before conducting a pre-designed experiment and finally an original experiment. The original experiment exposed common goldfish to differing levels of alcohol (0, 0.04, 1%) and recorded their latency to feed and overall movement patterns, as measured by the number of sections entered in the test tank. Results illustrate that with increases in alcohol concentration latency to feed decreased while the number of sections entered increased. Details of the course and experimental set up are discussed as well as the potential for implementation in similar environments. Keywords: psychological disorders, animal models, alcohol, goldfish, course design

Compartmentalization

Humans tend to compartmentalize. We hold ideas in isolation from each other and do not make connections among them. The failure to connect ideas to each other is a major impediment to the construction of knowledge. This can lead to the simultaneous holding of beliefs inconsistent with each other, difficulty in using prior knowledge when faced with a new problem solving task, and a lack of creativity. Compartmentalization of knowledge leads to isolation of ideas. When ideas are stored in distinct areas of the mind without links that are the basis of integration the result is an array of closed systems leading to a lack of cognitive progress. Although evolutionary psychologists have argued that compartmentalization may be advantageous in some contexts, (Kurzban, 2010) and a psychoanalytic interpretation identifies compartmentalization as a helpful defense mechanism (McWilliams, 1994), the cognitive disadvantages of compartmentalization are substantial. It is essential that we as educators equip students to recognize compartmentalization in their own thinking and overcome its effects where appropriate.

Secularism, interfaith marriages and reengagement with the study of Islam-Christian Relations in Ghana

Abstract The focus of this paper is to examine how interfaith marriages and other forms of conjugal relations, facilitated by Ghana’s ‘secular’ status, are (re)shaping Muslim-Christian interactions in Zongo communities (Muslim-dominated communities) in Accra. The paper, which deployed ethnographic research approach, argues that instead of casting the relationship between Muslims and Christians in terms of conflict and tension, we need to look at how the evolution of Zongo communities (now religiously and ethnically deeply plural), and the politics of secularisation have contributed to creating an atmosphere of peaceful interactions between Muslims and Christians. The paper also reflects on the future of such interactions and advocates new approaches to the study of Muslim-Christian relations in Ghana and Africa.

Qualitative Research Methods and Clinical Practice Techniques for Social Work

Abstract It was noted recently that the professional practice of social work with clinical micro-units (individual, family, and group) approach uses qualitative research methods in the process of data collection, analysis and interpretation to achieve the desired change. Qualitative research methods seek to examine the intrinsic nature of human phenomena as they are, so that they are based on the subjective dimension of human experience which is constantly changing according to the facts of time and space. This research indicates that when the clinical social work begins in terms of the client, it looks at the client as part of the environmental context in which he exists, and this corresponds to the qualitative research approach which is based on understanding the human phenomena (psychological and social) in their normal environment. This study is also trying to clarify by comparing the similarities and differences between the methods of qualitative research and the professional techniques used by the social worker in the professional practice of clinical social work. As well as, the results of this study can contribute to the provision of alternative criteria for the standards of quantitative approach and more effective in studying the psycho-social phenomena. Keywords: qualitative research methods, clinical professional practice techniques, clinical social work, characteristics of qualitative research, naturalistic inquiry.